Andalusian lady, mid 13th century

Less is known about Andalusian female dress than about male costume, though written and pictorial sources agree that it could be very attractive. On the other hand such accounts may romanticise the subject. This lady is largely based upon a unique illustrated Arab-Andalusian love story. Her crown also appears in other sources but its actual method of construction is unknown.

Leonese knight, early 13th century

The armies of Leon seem to have been more feudal than those of Castile, with less reliance on non-noble urban troops. This man uses typical knightly gear though with some interesting features. His lack of mail mittens seems old fashioned but the heavy coat-of-plates worn over his mail hauberk is remarkably advanced and may suggest Islamic or eastern Mediterranean influence on the development of such body armours.

Almohad foot soldier, early 13th century

More is known about the appearance of Almohad troops than of the Almoravids, but even so most pictorial sources date from the very end of the Almohad period. Their costume was essentially the same as that still worn by the urban and rural peoples of North Africa, rather than that of the nomads. This humble soldier wears a traditional hooded burnus over a relatively primitive helmet based on a unique early 13th century manuscript from northern Morocco. His long-hafted single-edged weapon is, in contrast, an Iberian device.