Civil Wars in Iberia 1325-75

Portuguese knight c.1350

Portugal was militarily old fashioned until the late 14th century, yet some of its elite clearly used modern imported arms and armour. This man is based on a Portuguese statuette which portrays an unusual form of great helm which includes a hinged neck-protecting bevor. Apart from plated leg defences he relies only on mail. In some Iberian horse-armours only the crupper or rear part was given a decorative heraldic covering.

Navarrese infantryman, mid 14th century

Infantry dominated warfare in mountainous Navarre, an area which was also under particularly strong French influence. This man has a brimmed chapel-de-fer, a complete mail hauberk beneath a fully developed coat-of-plates which may be of Italian manufacture, plus leg armour of hardened leather. Unlike greaves of iron such leg defences were generally laced rather than buckled into place. The man’s falchion is held in its scabbard by a buckle while his spiked axe is a peculiary Spanish weapon.

Aragonese knights c.1325

This man bears the arms of the powerful Montcada family on his shield. He is otherwise almost entirely based on the effigy of Don Alvaro de cabrera the Younger, except for a helmet which is a form of early bascinet with a nasal. The heavy rigid bevor around his neck is supported by a collar which like the upper part of his surcoat and his sabatons, appears to be lined with scales held in place by eleborate rivets. The extravagantly long cuffs of his guantlets are probably of buff leather or rawhide.